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Nonconcordant variation 

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Question 12 pts

Studies have shown that UV radiation rapidly depletes ______, which plays a crucial role in neural tube development of the embryo.

vitamin C

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Question 22 pts

According to lecture, thus far, the oldest skeletal evidence for anatomically modern Homo sapiens could be as old as:

125,000 years
1.8 million years
400,000 years
600,000 years
195,000 years

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Question 32 pts

This tool is an example of a __________ tool using ________.  They are found with increased frequency during the ______.

compound; microliths; neolithic
integrated; microliths; mesolithic
compound; burian; neolithic
composite; microliths; mesolithic
composite; mousterian flakes; mesolithic

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Question 42 pts

A person raised in the Andean highlands has relatively larger lung volume than does a person raised in the lowlands.  This difference is best explained by:

Physical adaptation
Physiological adaptation
Hormonal adaptation
Developmental acclimatization  
Genetic acclimatization 

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Question 52 pts

Which of the following are basic changes that mark the transition from Neolithic village life to life in the first urban centers? Choose all that apply:

diversification of food resources.
agricultural innovation.
diversification of labor.
central government.
social stratification.

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Question 62 pts

Which of the following are seen in the pattern of human evolution history? Choose all that apply.

Natural selection acting on anatomically modern Homo sapiens within the last 10,000 years
Evidence of an adaptive shift starting around 1.8 mya relating to changes in body size, subsistence patterns, and technology changes
A shift from extractive foraging to food production starting about 40,000 years ago
Several groups of hominins that are not directly in the modern human lineage (our evolutionary cousins)
Evolution of increased brain size then bipedal locomotion

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Question 72 pts

As discussed in class, genetic adaptations to environmental stresses are

seen only in nonhuman animals
long term microevolutionary changes within a population
always temporary
short-term evolutionary changes within an individual
the same as acclimatization responses

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Question 82 pts

Molecular information from Ust’-Ishim Man, an anatomically modern Homo sapiensfossil dated to 45,000 years ago shows about _________% admixture with Neandertals.


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Question 92 pts

Nonconcordant variation means:

traits vary between populations at the same rate
the presence of one trait can predict another
traits vary gradually between neighboring populations
traits vary between populations in a predictable pattern
traits vary between populations, but not at the same rate

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Question 102 pts

Primary innovation differs from secondary innovation because:

it involves modification of primary knowledge
it involves careful experimentation to create a new technique
it involves chance discovery of a new idea
it rarely leads to changes in technology

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Question 112 pts

Lactase persistence is a _________ that typifies __________ communities.

developmental adaptation; foraging
developmental acclimatization; pastoralist
genetic adaptation; pastoralist
genetic adaptation; agricultural
genetic adaptation; foraging

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Question 122 pts

In regards to hominin tool kits, a blade is defined as being:

made only out of obsidian
twice as wide as it is long
a tool that takes fewer steps to make than a flake tool
twice as long as it is wide
a tool that occurs in high frequency during the middle paleolithic

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Question 132 pts

Which is a term applied to an evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals?


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Question 142 pts

Many characteristics that have traditionally been used to define ‘races’ in human populations:

are polygenic.
are the product of Mendelian inheritance.
do not vary within groups.
can easily be altered
easily draw distinct boundaries between populations.

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Question 152 pts

Admixture is a term used by population geneticists to indicate:

the exchange of genetic information between different species
population separation due to behavioral boundaries
population separation due to geographic boundaries
the exchange of cultural information between populations that have been separated for a long time
the exchange of genetic information between populations that have been separated for a long time

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Question 162 pts

What is the benefit of an atlatl?

It is used for fishing.
It can be used as a drill
It is used for starting fires.
It is used to increase the force and distance of a spear throw.
It is a unique type of projectile point

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Question 172 pts

Bergmann’s rule

is based on the principle that heat is retained at the body surface
states that a linear body with long arms and legs is optimal for cold climates
states that bodies with increased mass or volume to surface area are optimal for cold climates
is based upon the principle that as arms increase in length, there is a corresponding increase in surface area
concerns the relationship between climate and shape and size of appendages

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Question 182 pts

According to the complete replacement model, the transition from premodern to modern Homo sapiens

only occurred once, in Africa
began about 200,000 years ago in Asia
occurred first in Europe
occurred in several regions of the Old World simultaneously
began about 10,000 years ago in Indonesia

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Question 192 pts

Which of the following is NOT a physiological acclimatization to thermal stress:

increased hemoglobin production

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Question 202 pts

According to the Regional Continuity Model, ________ prevented local populations of pre-modern Homo sapiens from becoming separate species.

gene flow
displacement by African Homo sapiens
genetic drift
founder’s effect
mitochondrial DNA

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Question 212 pts

Ultraviolet radiation from the sun:

stimulates the production of a vitamin D precursor
causes mutations leading to darker skin
increases in northern latitudes
provides vitamin D
causes rickets

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Question 222 pts

The word  civilization  connotes refinement and progress, but in anthropology, the term refers to

central inhabited cities where transportation and communication hubs exist.
societies in which large numbers of people live in political systems that lack stratification.
societies in which small numbers of people live in socially stratified political systems.
the independence of people to do what they desire.
societies in which large numbers of people live in socially stratified political systems.

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Question 232 pts

The distribution pattern of Neandertal DNA in the Ust’-Ishim Man sample as compared to its distribution pattern in modern humans relates to:

crossover (recombination) during mitosis
there was no Neandertal DNA in Ust’-Ishim Man
sexual selection
the principle of independent assortment
crossover (recombination) during meiosis

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Question 242 pts

The potato, tomato, and peanut were all first domesticated in

North America
South America
Southwest Asia

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Question 252 pts

Who were the earliest Mesolithic people known to have stored plant food, as evidenced by basin-shaped depressions in the rocks found outside homes and plastered storage pits beneath the floors of the houses?


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Question 262 pts

Based on the distribution of human genetic variation, if a global disaster killed everyone on the planet except those people living in Asia, ______% of human genetic variation would still be represented.


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Question 272 pts

Biological systems are balanced systems maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for both external and internal changes. Such a balanced system is in


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Question 282 pts

Blombos Cave is significant for accomplishments in art and technology that date to the ________________ but are similar to accomplishments dated to the __________________ in Europe.

Middle Paleolithic, Lower Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic
Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic

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Question 292 pts

The question of whether modern humans and Neandertals interbred at some point

was settled about twenty years ago
was never an issue among paleoanthropologists
is far from settled
is established based on genetic evidence.
was called into question with the discoveries at Zhoukoudian

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Question 302 pts

All of the following are characteristics commonly associated with domesticated plants except:

development of simultaneous ripening
reduction of seed protective devices, such as husks
increased size
increase in natural seed dispersal mechanisms
loss of delayed seed germination

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Question 312 pts

The first hominin to spread to North and South America was______.

Homo erectus
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo sapiens
Homo habilis

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Question 322 pts

Which of the following best describes accelerated breathing for a non-native at high altitude?

Physical adaptation
Genetic adaptation
Hormonal adaptation
Developmental acclimatization 
Physiological acclimatization 

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Question 332 pts


is the increased availability of oxygen
is the reduced availability of oxygen
is a problem for people living at sea level
occurs at higher altitudes because the atmosphere contains less oxygen than at sea level
exerts no stress on humans

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Question 342 pts

A polytypic species

is one composed of local populations that differ from one another with regard to the expression of one or moretraits
is one that has very little phenotypic variability
is one composed of local populations that differ from one another with regard to the expression of no more than three traits
is composed of narrowly dispersed populations
has never been observed in nature

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Question 352 pts

Scholars attribute the earliest form of writing to__________.

health records for each of its citizens
recordkeeping of state affairs of economic activity
records of warfare accomplishments and titles
Preserving a written form of story-telling and a collection of cultural myths
codification of formal law for judiciary purposes

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Question 362 pts

The application of evolutionary principles to the study of human variation

allowed scientists to ignore the adaptive significance of most traits
reinforced traditional views of races as fixed biological entities that do not change
allowed scientists to divide the human species precisely into well-defined races
helped replace earlier views based solely on observed phenotypes
has been of little value for understanding human variation

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Question 372 pts

Indigenous Tibetan populations have a genetic adaptation to high altitude that:

increases production of hemoglobin
suppresses vasodilatation for oxygen delivery
suppresses the typical hypoxia response
increases the risk of pregnancy difficulties due to vascular supply issues
increases the typical developmental acclimatization response to high altitude

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Question 382 pts

Upper Paleolithic toolkits are characterized by all except:

bone tools
regional specializations
bronze tools

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Question 392 pts

The Skhûl site is in ____________.  One important aspect of this region in regards to Late Pleistocene hominin evolution is _____________.

France, contemporaneous occupation by H. erectus and anatomically modern H. sapiens.
East Africa, contemporaneous occupation by Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens.
Israel, contemporaneous occupation by Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens.
France, contemporaneous occupation by Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens.
Israel, contemporaneous occupation by H. erectus and anatomically modern H. sapiens.

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Question 402 pts

Which statement is NOT true about clinal variation:

traits with clinal variation have clearly defined geographic boarders
it explains similarities between neighboring populations
traits with clinal variation differ gradually between neighboring populations
human skin color is a trait with clinal variation
clinal variation refutes typological classifications of modern humans

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Question 4114 pts

Match the description/definition with the site/subsistence practice

Located in East Africa and dated to 160,000-154,000 ya; cranial remains with modern human traits; includes remains of a child

Located in South Africa and dated to 165,000 ya; evidence of microliths

cultivation of crops; uses simple hand tools

Located in East Africa and dated to 196,000-104,000 ya; cranial framents with features identified as modern human

Located in Central Africa and dated to 80,000 ya; hooks for fishing are found here

farming that involves large plots of land and/or extensive irrigation

Located in Southwest Asia and dated to ~110,000 ya; cranial remains considered to be modern human but have some Neandertal features;

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Question 422 pts

One of the effects of larger population sizes during the Neolithic is: 

increase in subsistence variety
increase tooth wear
increase in infectious disease
decrease in craft specialization
decrease innovation in farming techniques

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Question 432 pts

Based on the genetic adaptations that have been found in modern human populations that have differing amounts of starch in their diet, what would you expect to find in a foraging population that utilizes taro roots and yams? 

A majority of people will have at least 6 copies of the amylase gene in their genome
A majority of people will have only 3 copies of the amylase gene in their genome
There have been no genetic adaptations found to be associated with increased frequency of starch in the diet
A majority of people will have at least 6 copies of the lactase persistence gene in their genome
Older individuals will have more copies of the amylase gene than do younger individuals

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Question 442 pts

Consider a hypothetical human population with limited access to medical care. Which of the following diseases is likely to be affected by natural selection? Choose all that apply.

a heritable disease that kills affected individuals by the age of 10
a disease caused by environmental factors that kills some individuals by the age of 55. Some individuals have immunity to the effects of the disease.
a disease caused by environmental factors that kills some individuals by the age of 10. Some individuals have immunity to the effects of the disease.
a heritable disease that kills affected individuals by the age of 55

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