Paper Review and correction.
Grammarical error corrections
1. Under figures and data please put which of the sources it wasn’t drafted from.
2. Make paper look better and boost grade.
3. Citations in Alphabetic order
Length: Approximately 13 to 15 types pages including figures, tables, and references, double-spaced. (More is okay, but not necessary for an “A.”)
3. Margins: One inch on all sides
4. Numeration: Number all pages at top right except title page, which is unnumbered.
a. Do not quote or use footnotes. Instead, paraphrase articles and cite each reference in the text as shown below:
Baker (1972) noted that isopods prefer moist conditions. Other authors (Alexander 1963; Wiet 1950; Zwick 1982) have reported different findings.
b. Don’t say such things as “According to Smith (1982) . . .”; instead, put the reference at the end of the sentence in parentheses.
c. At least ten different references must be used, with at least seven of these being primary scientific journal articles. All references cited in the text will be listed at the end of the paper in the References Cited section in alphabetical order. The format should be like that shown below. Note that first and middle names are not spelled out. Use “et al.” for referencing three or more coauthors in the text, but write out every author in the References Cited section. Capitalize only first word and proper nouns (except in book titles). Put an asterisk (*) to the left of every citation you procured on your own. Some general examples are:
Smith, R.L. 1996. Ecology and Field Biology, 5th ed. Harper and Row, New York.
Articles in books:
Henry, P.S. 1973. The art of bird banding, pp. 76-83. In R.P. Adams [ed.], Ornithology Saunders Publ. Co., Philadelphia.
Wetzel, R.G. 1981. The role of aquatic macrophytes in lakes. Ecology 53:10-17.
________, R.P. Smith, and A.L. Jones. 1965. Lakes of the Pacific Northwest. Limnology and Oceanography 16:57-70. (Note: Use line for repetitive authors.)
Ray, S.R. 1992. How predators capture prey. National Geographic 163(4): 17-24.
Anonymous. 1997. Siberian tigers. http://vygotsky.sfi su.edu/zooltiger.html
6. Neatness, Corrections, Grammar, Punctuation, etc: Computers/word processors are especially nice and highly recommended; use 12-13 size font that can be easily read; use regular typing paper with texture like paper used in this handout (not onionskin paper); use Spell Checker on your computer or look up words in dictionary for correct spelling and word division; use proper punctuation; make corrections neatly (erase carefully or use Liquid Paper if necessary); have someone else proofread your paper for errors after you’ve gone through it; write scientifically and not “flowery”; use the metric system; numbers should be written out only if no units follow; abbreviate units (e.g., 5%, 10 cm, 15º C, etc.); put figures and tables on separate pages from your text.
7. Format: The paper should be organized as follows:
a. Title Page: type title of paper near top center and type your name, date, course title, semester, and professor’s name near bottom right.
b. Introduction: general introduction to the topic with pertinent references; include statement of purpose; about 1-4 (or more) pages; start general and get more specific toward the end of the Introduction.
c. Discussion: thorough analysis of the topic using specific references and including your analysis of the subject.
NOTE: You can combine Introduction and Discussion sections if you wish. (Feel free to use subheadings.)
d. Conclusion: concluding remarks; your opinion of your findings, including its significance to ecology; what future research needs to be done, etc.
e. References Cited: alphabetical listing of all references cited in paper; not numbered. (Make sure you double-check that all references cited are in Bibliography and vice versa.)
f. Turn in the paper stapled together without any covering or folder. (Note: Table of Contents page is not necessary.)
8. Refer to Smith’s textbook or the CBE (Council of Biological Editors) Style Manual in the Reference Room for any further format questions.
9. Your paper should be quantitative. Include photos, graphs, figures, and/or tables in your paper. Cite any reproduced tables or figures in the caption, e.g., “Table 1. Summary data for moose herds (from Merk 1978).” Refer to all Figures and Tables in text just as Smith and other authors do, e.g., “Figure 1 shows that . . .” or “ . . . as these data show (Fig. 5).” Graphs, maps, and photos are always referred to as figures. Place figures and tables individually on next page of paper after you first refer to them. Color photos and color photocopies are nice to include. Table captions go at the top and figure captions go at the bottom of each entry.
10. Further helpful information: There should be a space between numbers and units (e.g., 5 cm); don’t leave less than three letters on one line for hyphenated words; keep paper past tense when discussing what other researchers have shown; keep reference to animals neuter (e.g., say “it” instead of “he”) and don’t say “man” (use “humans,” “people,” etc.); keep the use of “very” and other adjectives to a minimum; don’t say “due to” (pick some other wording instead); the term “data” is plural; paragraphs must be more than one sentence, but shouldn’t be too long; underline genus and species names.
11. When I grade: I look for scientific style of writing, including incorporation of scientific thought, references (especially primary), and data (figures and tables) from these primary references.
12. Make sure you follow these instructions carefully. Your paper will be graded according to these guidelines. Proofread your paper carefully before turning it in.