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Intro To Intelligence-Response & Recovery

Chapter 7

Response & Recovery


  • Local police, fire and emergency medical personnel are usually the first to respond to disasters
  • Their job is to rescue and attend to victims, suppress fires, secure and police the disaster area, and to begin the process of restoring order
  • They are supported in this effort by local emergency management personnel and community government officials

9/11 Response

  • The unexpected September 11th attacks, the 2001 Anthrax attacks, and the poor response to Hurricane Katrina each revealed certain weaknesses in US response systems
  • There was an unprecedented loss of lives among civilians (and first responders in the case of 9/11)
  • Certain systems in place performed below expectations and procedures were not followed or were found to be unsuitable
  • All levels of government were prompted to initiate evaluations to improve response procedures and protocols

Post-9/11 Response

  • New focus on protection of 1st responders
  • Change from Federal Response Plan (FRP) to National Response Plan (NRP)
  • Threats addressed with a more unified, national effort
  • Development and eventual implementation of a new incident command approach (NIMS) to National response operations

Purpose of the NRP

  • To unify crisis and consequence management as a single, integrated function
  • To provide interoperability and compatibility among Federal, State and local capabilities
  • To enhance response and preparedness capabilities of first responders and state and local governments against all kinds of hazards and threats
  • To integrate the private sector and the business communities at a greater extent into response activities and responsibilities in order to increase resources in hand

A Newer Response System: NRF

  • Hurricane Katrina exposed problems with the NRP
  • NRF developed to be more concise
  • NRF is based heavily upon the systems and organization contained within the NRP, but is a framework, not a plan
  • Released in January of 2008 after a period of comment and adjustment

Declaration Under the NRF

  • Governor decides that the event has exceeded /will exceed the state’s response capacity, and makes a formal request to the President through FEMA
  • Governor’s request analyzed by FEMA Administrator, who recommends a course of action to the President
  • President considers FEMA’s recommendation, and decides whether or not to declare the disaster
  • Once a declaration is made, FEMA Administrator activates components of the NRF
  • If an incident has already occurred, NRF priority shifts to immediate and short-term response activities
  • Either during or immediately following the response phase, the long-term recovery is initiated

Types of Presidential Declarations

  • Presidential Major Disaster Declaration
  • Emergency Declaration

Legislative Actions

  • Several bills involved in the establishment of homeland security as it exists today, including:
  • The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act of 2001
  • The Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
  • The SA 4470 Amendment
  • The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
  • The Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002
  • The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002
  • The Homeland Security Act of 2002

DHS/FEMA Responsibilities

Help to ensure the preparedness of emergency response providers for terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies

Establish standards, conduct exercises and training, evaluate performance, and provide funds in relation to the Nuclear Incident Response Team

Provide the Federal government’s response to terrorist attacks and major disasters

Aid the recovery from terrorist attacks and major disasters

FEMA Responsibilities Cont’d.

Work with other Federal and non-Federal agencies to build a comprehensive national incident management system

Consolidate existing Federal government emergency response plans into a single, coordinated national response plan

Develop comprehensive programs for developing interoperable communications technology and ensure that emergency response providers acquire such technology

EM Agencies and Functions Transferred to FEMA

  • The Integrated Hazard Information System of NOAH, renamed `FIRESAT’
  • The National Domestic Preparedness Office of the FBI
  • The Domestic Emergency Support Teams of DOJ
  • The Office of Emergency Preparedness, the National Disaster Medical System, and the Metropolitan Medical Response System of HHS
  • The Strategic National Stockpile of HHS

Local Response

  • Minor disasters occur daily in communities around the United States
  • Local fire, police and emergency medical personnel respond to these events in a routine, systematic and well-planned course of action
  • Actions of local first responders are driven by procedures and protocols developed by the responding agency
  • In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist events, many communities have reviewed and reworked their community emergency plans to include procedures and protocols for responding to all forms of terrorist attacks

First Responders

  • Over 1 million firefighters in the US
  • Over 556,000 full-time police employees
  • About 291,000 full-time employees in Sheriffs’ offices
  • Over 155,000 registered emergency medical technicians (EMT)
  • First responder roles and responsibilities are detailed in the community emergency plan, developed by the local Emergency Manager

1st Responder Funding Areas

  • Planning
  • Equipment
  • Training
  • Exercises

1st Responder Funding Programs
in Fiscal Year 2008

  • State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)
  • Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)
  • Citizen Corps Program (CCP)
  • Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) Program

State Response

  • All US states and territories maintain an Office of Emergency Management
  • Where in the government structure the EM office resides varies from state to state
  • Funding for State EM offices comes principally from DHS and State budgets
  • National Guard is the principal resource available to Governors in responding to a disaster event in their state

Volunteer Groups Response

  • Volunteer groups often involved in disaster response
  • National groups such as the American Red Cross and the Salvation Army roster and maintain local chapters of volunteers with emergency response training
  • These organizations provide shelter, food and clothing to victims who have had to evacuate or lost their homes
  • National Volunteer Organizations Against Disasters (NVOAD) is comprised of 49 national member organizations, 54 State and territorial VOADs and a growing number of local VOADs involved in disaster response and recovery operations
  • DHS heavily involved in volunteer programs

DHS Volunteer Groups

  • Citizen Corps Councils
  • Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT)
  • Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS)
  • Medical Reserve Corps
  • Neighborhood Watch
  • Fire Corps

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Functions

  • Coordinates with local/State 1st responders to manage disasters, and to recover from their effects
  • Administers the Disaster Relief Fund
  • Administers the National Flood Insurance Program
  • Continues training and responsibilities of the USFA
  • Continues to offer mitigation grant programs including the Hazards Mitigation Grant Program, the Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program and the Flood Mitigation Assistance Program
  • Administers the Citizen Corps Program

Integrated Hazard Information System (IHIS)

  • IHIS initially transferred from NOAA into DHS/ EP&R, and its name was changed to “FIRESAT”
  • IHIS created by DOD in 1997 to compile data obtained from various satellites and sensors, including those which monitor weather conditions
  • In 2000, IHIS moved into USGS, where it was used to detect wildfires and volcanic eruptions
  • Congress moved IHIS to DHS according to the HS Act of 2002, but has not yet provided funding for it

National Domestic Preparedness Office (NDPO)

  • Serves as a single program and policy office for WMD
  • Coordinates the establishment of training curriculum and standards for first responder training 
  • Facilitates the efforts of the Federal government to provide the responder community with detection, protection, analysis, and decontamination equipment necessary to prepare for, and respond to, an incident involving WMD
  • Provides state and local governments with the resources and expertise necessary to design, conduct, and evaluate exercise scenarios involving WMD
  • Communicates information to the state and local emergency response community

Domestic Emergency Support Team (DEST)

  • DEST is an interagency team of experts that operates on a stand-by basis and which can be quickly mobilized
  • DEST falls under DHS, but is led by the FBI to provide an on-scene commander (the Special Agent in Charge) with advice and guidance in situations involving WMDs or other significant domestic threats
  • DEST guidance ranges from information management and communications support to instructions on how to best respond to WMDs
  • DEST has no permanent staff at DHS, the FBI, or at any other federal agency.

Office of Emergency Preparedness

Oversees the emergency management functions of mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery with all agencies and organizations that carry out health or medical services

The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS)

  • Establishes a single integrated National medical response capability for assisting State and local authorities in dealing with the medical and health effects of major peacetime disasters
  • Provides support to the military and the Department of Veterans Affairs medical systems in caring for casualties evacuated back to the U.S. from overseas armed conventional conflicts
  • NDMS units include DMATs, DMORTs, VMATs, FCCs, NPRTs, and NNRTs

Metropolitan Medical Response System

  • Capable of providing initial, on-site, emergency health and medical services following a terrorist incident involving a WMDs
  • Can provide emergency medical services, decontamination of victims, mental health services
  • Plans for the disposition of non-survivors and plans for the forward movement of patients to regional health care facilities, as appropriate
  • Coordinates WMD response of fire, EMS, HAZMAT, and public, private and mental health communities
  • Since 1995, has grown from 25 to 130 teams

The Strategic National Stockpile

  • A national repository of antibiotics, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, life-support medications, IV administration, airway maintenance supplies, and medical/surgical items
  • Provides a re-supply of large quantities of essential medical materiel to states and communities during an emergency within twelve hours of the Federal decision to deploy

Urban Search & Rescue (USAR)

  • Involves the location, rescue (extrication), and initial medical stabilization of victims trapped in confined spaces
  • Structural collapse is most often the cause of victims being trapped, but victims may also be trapped in transportation accidents, mines and collapsed trenches
  • There are 28 national task forces staffed and equipped to conduct round-the-clock search-and-rescue operations

Maritime Search and Rescue

  • Maintained by US Coast Guard
  • National Distress and Response System used to monitor for maritime distress calls and coordinate response operations
  • Marine Safety Center Salvage Assistance and Response Team provides on-scene technical support at maritime catastrophes
  • AMVER is a ship reporting system for search and rescue operations
  • National Strike Force responds to oil and hazardous substance pollution incidents

Other Agencies With EM Responsibilities

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • Department of Defense (DoD)
  • Department of Energy (DOE)
  • Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

National Incident Management System

  • Concept of control = ‘Incident Command’
  • With terrorism, IC issue became more difficult
  • HSPD-5 – national incident command system
  • Provide consistent nationwide approach for Federal, state, tribal and local governments to work together to prepare for, prevent, respond to and recover from domestic incidents – regardless of cause, size, complexity
  • 3/1/04 – NIMS released = a core set of doctrine, principles, terminology, and organizational processes to enable disaster management at all levels
  • Recognizes the value of the ICS

NIMS Continued

  • NIMS goes beyond the initial scope of ICS
  • Establishes standardized incident management processes, protocols, and procedures
  • Following are key components of the new system:
  • Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Communications and Information Management
  • Preparedness
  • Joint Information System (JIS)
  • NIMS Integration Center (NIC)

National Response Framework (NRF)

  • Developed to be a single document that structured emergency management efforts at all Government levels
  • Scalable, flexible, and adaptable in coordinating the key roles and responsibilities of response participants
  • Describes specific authorities and practices for managing incidents that range from serious local events to large-scale national-level disasters
  • Built directly upon the NIMS structure
  • Can be partially or fully implemented in the lead-up or response to an emergency or disaster threat

NRF Organization

  • Core Document
  • Emergency Support Function (ESF) Annexes
  • Support Annexes
  • Incident Annexes
  • Partner Guides

NRF Roles and Responsibilities

  • NRF defines the roles and responsibilities of all levels of government and other entities guided under the plan, including:
  • States
  • Local, and Tribal Governments
  • The Federal Government
  • Nongovernmental and Volunteer Organizations
  • The Private Sector
  • Citizens

NRF Concepts and Components

  • ICS
  • MACS
  • Unified Command
  • Field Level Incident Command
  • Field Level Area Command
  • Local / State EOC
  • JIC
  • JFO
  • HSC
  • NSC
  • NOC
  • NMCC
  • NCTC
  • SIOC

NRF Emergency Support Functions

  • 15 ESFs provide the structure for coordinating Federal interagency support during emergencies and disasters
  • FEMA coordinates response support across the Federal Government and certain NGOs by calling up, as needed, one or more of the 15 ESFs
  • ESFs coordinated by FEMA through the NRCC
  • ESFs coordinate specific functional capabilities and resources provided by Federal departments and agencies and with certain private-sector and nongovernmental organizations
  • For each ESF there is a Coordinator, a primary agency, and several support agencies


  • ESF #1: Transportation
  • ESF #2: Communications
  • ESF #3: Public Works and Engineering
  • ESF #4: Firefighting
  • ESF #5: Emergency Management
  • ESF #6: Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing, and Human Services
  • ESF #7: Logistics Management and Resource Support
  • ESF #8: Public Health and Medical Services
  • ESF #9: Search and Rescue
  • ESF #10: Oil and Hazardous Materials Response
  • ESF #11: Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • ESF #12: Energy
  • ESF #13: Public Safety and Security
  • ESF #14: Long-Term Community Recovery
  • ESF #15: External Affairs

NRF Support Annexes

  • Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources
  • Financial Management
  • International Coordination
  • Private-Sector Coordination
  • Public Affairs
  • Tribal Relations
  • Volunteer and Donations Management
  • Worker Safety and Health

NRF Incident Annexes

  • Biological Incident Annex
  • Catastrophic Incident Annex
  • Cyber Incident Annex
  • Food and Agriculture Incident Annex
  • Nuclear / Radiological Incident Annex
  • Oil and Hazardous Materials Incident Annex
  • Terrorism Incident Law Enforcement and Investigation Annex


  • Often begins in the initial hours and days following a disaster event
  • Can continue for months and in some cases years, depending on the severity of the event
  • Characterized by a complex set of issues and decisions: rebuilding homes; replacing property; resuming employment; restoring businesses; and permanently repairing and rebuilding infrastructure
  • Recovery has remained essentially the same as it was before the establishment of DHS

Disaster Recovery Operations under the NRF

Two phases of recovery identified in the NRF:

  • Short-term recovery: actions begin immediately upon disaster occurrence and include essential public health and safety services, critical utility and service restoration, reestablishment of transportation, and provision of food and shelter
  • Long-term recovery: the restoration of lives and livelihoods, beginning after lifelines and critical societal components have been restored, and continuing for months or years after the disaster has ended

ESF# 14 Primary/Support Agencies

  • Department of Agriculture
  • Department of Homeland Security
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • Small Business Administration
  • Department of Commerce
  • Department of Defense
  • Department of Energy
  • Department of Health and Human Services
  • Department of the Interior
  • Department of Labor
  • Department of Transportation
  • Department of the Treasury
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Corporation for National and Community Service
  • Delta Regional Authority
  • American Red Cross
  • National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster

Individual Assistance Recovery Programs

  • Individual and Households Program (IHP)
  • Small Business Administration (SBA) Disaster Loans
  • Disaster Unemployment Assistance
  • Legal Services
  • Special Tax Considerations
  • Crisis Counseling

Public Assistance Grant Program

  • Provides Federal assistance to state and local governments and to certain PNPs
  • Designed to facilitate repair, restoration, replacement, or reconstruction, of public facilities or infrastructure
  • Projects are grouped into the following categories:
  • Category A: Debris removal
  • Category B: Emergency protective measures
  • Category C: Road systems and bridges
  • Category D: Water control facilities
  • Category E: Public buildings and contents
  • Category F: Public utilities
  • Category G: Parks, recreational, and other

Other Federal Agency Disaster Recovery Funding

  1. Most are triggered by a Presidential declaration of a major disaster or emergency under the Stafford Act
  2. The Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the SBA have specific authority relevant to their constituencies to declare a disaster and provide disaster recovery assistance

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