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Impact Of Life Style


I. Health: The Foundation for Life A. In the United States, there are some encouraging signs that more people are concerned

about improving and protecting their health than in the past.

1. A higher percentage of American adults report exercising at least 150 minutes a week

2. In 1995, 71% of adults reported that their blood cholesterol level had been checked. By 2013, that percentage had increased to 79.2% of adults.

3. Between 1988 and 2008, the percentage of Americans wearing seatbelts while riding in motor vehicles increased dramatically.

4. Americans have also improved their eating habits. People are consuming less added sugars, more calcium, and more dietary fiber.

5. In 2009, fewer Americans died of cancer than in 1999. 6. Life Expectancy has increased from 75.4 years in 1990 to 76 years for male

and 81 years for females in 2010

B. Certain aspects of Americans’ current health status are less encouraging. 1. Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable illness and death in the US.

About 1 in 5 Americans 18 and older smoked cigarettes

2. In 2011, excessive alcohol consumption was the third leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States, including traffic-related fatalities.

Seventeen percent of adult Americans and 25 percent of high school students

reported that they engaged in binge drinking (consuming 5 or mode drinks for

men and 4 or more drinks for women) in 2011.

C. The typical American does not meet the federal government’s recommendations concerning healthy food choices and exercise which is causing to the increasingly high

prevalence of obesity.

1. By 2010, 17% of American children and more than 36% of American adults were obese.

2. Obesity is associated with development of many serious diseases, including high blood pressure, heart disease, certain cancers, and type 2 diabetes, a

serious disorder characterized by the body’s inability to regulate its blood

sugar normally.

3. Many older adults suffer from conditions that reduce their ability to enjoy life due to their lack of exercise and proper nutrition.

D. Ask students to define “lifestyle” and “risk factor.” 1. Lifestyle: A way of living including behaviors that promote or impair good

health and longevity.

2. Risk factor: A characteristic that increases an individual’s chances of developing a health problem.

E. Although people cannot prevent certain conditions such as birth defects and inherited disorders, many can modify risk factors to reduce the likelihood of developing serious

chronic health conditions.

II. The Dimensions of Health A. What Is Health?

1. World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health: “A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease

or infirmity.”

2. Ottawa Charter definition of health: “A resource for everyday life…a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical


3. Hochbaum’s definition of health: “Health is what helps me be what I want to be…do what I want to do…[and] live the way I would like to live.”

B. Health and Wellness 1. Explain that “good health” enables one to function adequately within a

constantly changing environment.

2. Wellness is a sense that one is functioning at his or her best level. 3. Introduce the concept of holistic health. Health involves all aspects of the

individual, not only the physical, psychological, and social aspects, but also

the intellectual, spiritual, and environmental dimensions.

C. The Components of Health 1. The six dimensions of health are interrelated. 2. Physical Health: Refers to the overall condition of the organ systems, such as

the cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), respiratory system

(lungs), reproductive system, and nervous system.

a. Have students discuss signs and symptoms. b. Acute – tends to develop quickly and resolve within a few days or


c. Chronic – often takes months or years to develop, progresses in severity, and can affect a person over a longer period of time and

sometimes throughout his or her lifetime.

3. Psychological Health: Refers to the ability to deal effectively with the psychological challenges of life.

4. Social Health: Refers to the sense of well-being that one achieves by forming emotionally supportive and intellectually stimulating relationships with family

members, friends, and associates.

5. Intellectual Health: Refers to the ability to use problem-solving and other higher-order thinking (cognitive) skills to cope effectively with challenges.

6. Spiritual Health: Is the belief that one is a part of a larger scheme of life and that one’s life has purpose.

7. Environmental Health: Is concerned with the quality of the environment in which one lives, works and plays.

III. The Nation’s Health A. Health is more than just personal health; it is a national concern, too.

1. Lack of health insurance and high healthcare cost are major barriers to preventive action.

2. Although more Americans have health insurance, many have inadequate coverage.

3. The Affordable Care Act is projected t reduce the number of uninsured Americans by 30 million by 2022.

4. In 2011, total healthcare costs reached 2.37 trillion; health care costs are projected to increase to 2.5 trillion by 2022.

B. Health Promotion: Development of Healthy People 2020 1. Health promotion is the practice of helping people become healthier by

encouraging them to take more control over their health and change their

lifestyles. Health promotional efforts strive to prevent rather than treat disease

and injury.

2. The general goals of Healthy People 2000 were: increasing the healthy life span, improving the health status of minorities, and extending the accessibility

of preventive health care services to all Americans.

3. Table 1-3 identifies the 4 main goals of Healthy People 2020 and progress towards those goals will be measured by identified factors. Healthy People

2020 also identifies 42 “objective topic areas,” including “physical activity”

and “injury and violence prevention” as well as nearly 600 health objectives.

4. Refer students to Healthy People 2020 website.

C. Minority Health Status 1. Ask students to classify themselves by selected demographics (e.g. race,

ethnicity, sexual identify, religion, age, nationality, socioeconomic status,

etc.). Discuss how these characteristic might impact disparate health


2. Not all Americans have access to quality health care. Ask students to identify factors that affect their access to quality health care.

3. Diversity in Health box on page 14: a. Hispanic or Latino people make up the largest minority group in the

United States.

b. Income, health insurance coverage, education, and years living in the United States influence state of health.

IV. Genetics and Genomics A. Define “genes” and “genetics” B. Lifestyle and environment are not the only things that influence you health, inherited

genes also play a roll. Most of the leading causes of death in the United States have a

genetic component.

C. Genomics has the potential to be used to test, diagnose, predict, and treat common chronic diseases but its value has not been established.

V. Understanding Health-Related Behavior A. Changing Health-Related Behavior

1. Motivation, sometimes called attitude, is defined as the force or drive that leads one to take action, and is the key to changing health-related behaviors.

2. Self-Efficacy, the belief that one is capable of changing behavior, enhances motivation.

3. Having knowledge the health effects behaviors influences one’s likelihood of engaging in certain behaviors. Knowledge, alone, however, does not necessarily

motivate people to make lifestyle changes.

4. One’s motivation to engage in healthy behaviors if influenced by their perceptions of vulnerability, sense of control and perceived value of the behavior.

5. A person is likely to engage in healthful behaviors when he or she sees has a positive attitude about the behavior, perceives positive consequences of from

engaging in the behavior, and believes the behavior is generally worthwhile, and

could improve his health.

B. Making Positive Health-Related Decisions 1. Ask students the following questions:

i. “Within the past six months, have any of you quit smoking, started wearing seat belts, or made another behavior change to improve your


ii. “What motivated you to change the unhealthy behavior?” 2. Stages of Behavioral Change

i. According to Norcross and Prochaska’s model, there are five steps to changing behavior: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action,

and maintenance.

ii. Explain the following terms as they relate to behavior change: relapse, stimulus control, cues, counterconditioning, and rewards.

3. A Decision-Making Model i. The Workbook that accompanies the textbook includes assessment

activities and behavior-changing activities that incorporate a decision-

making model.

ii. Identify a problem 1. Make a list of benefits and harms of changing 2. Decide whether to change

iii. Set a target date and list ways to be successful iv. Prepare an action plan that provides specific steps to change behavior

1. Implement the plan and keep record of progress 4. The Goal of Prevention

i. A primary component of health promotion efforts is preventing diseases, infections, injuries, and other health-related conditions.

ii. Throughout life, having routine screening procedures is essential for promoting good health.

iii. Refer students to the Managing Your Health box.

VI. Managing Your Health A. Routine Health Care for Disease Prevention: Adult Recommendations

1. Refer students to Managing Your Health: Route Health Care for Disease

Prevention and discuss if they do these tests or think they will at the appropriate


B. Can Good Health Be Prescribed? 1. Numerous factors contribute to one’s chances of enjoying a long and productive

lifetime of good health. Several of these factors are the result of lifestyle choices

that people can make, while they are still young, to prevent or delay disease.

VII. Analyzing Health Information A. The U.S. Constitution protects freedom of speech and press, and as a result, people can

make false information about health.

B. If a claim about a health-related product or service sounds too good to be true, it probably is not true. Discuss the list of signs of questionable health information or products.

VIII. Consumer Protection A. The U.S. government has laws and agencies to protect consumers against health fraud

such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission


B. To avoid being victims of health frauds, people must take the initiative and be very critical when judging the reliability of health-related information.

C. Becoming a Wary Consumer of Health Information 1. Although health information from some sources is based on scientific evidence and

can be extremely useful, that from other sources may be unreliable.

2. Analysis Model –

i. Which statements are verifiable facts, and which are unverified statements or value claims?

a. Ignore anecdotes and testimonials b. Look for Disclaimers

ii. What are the credentials of the person who makes health-related claims? Does this person have the appropriate background and education in the

topic area? What can you do to check the person’s credentials?

iii. What might be the motives and biases of the person making the claims? iv. What is the main point of the article, ad, or claim? Which information is

relevant to the issue, main point, product, or service? Which information is


v. Is the source reliable? What evidence supports your conclusion that the source is reliable or unreliable? Does the source of information present the

pros and cons of the topic or the benefits and risks of the product?

vi. Does the source of information attack the credibility of conventional scientists or medical authorities?

D. Assessing Information on the Internet 1. Ask students what they would look for when judging the reliability of information

from a particular site.

2. What steps should be taken when choosing Internet resources?

IX. Conventional Medicine, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and Integrative


A. Conventional Medicine relies on modern scientific principles, modern technologies, and scientifically proven methods to prevent, diagnose, and treat health conditions.

i. To determine the safety and effectiveness of a treatment, medical researchers usually conduct studies on animals before testing humans in clinical studies,

using a treatment and control group.

ii. Researchers give subjects placebos to compare their responses to responses of subjects who receive the actual treatment. In double–blind studies, subjects

and researchers are unaware of the identity of those taking placebos.

B. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is an unconventional and diverse system of preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases that emphasizes spirituality, self-healing,

and harmonious interaction with the environment.

i. Have students identify and describe the different CAM therapies ii. Integrative Medicine emphasizes personalized health care and disease

prevention. Integrative medical practitioners focus on ways to encourage

people to take greater responsibility for achieving and maintaining good

health and well-being.

C. Herbs as Medicines i. Herbal medicines are classified as dietary supplements and are not subject to

the same regulation by the FDA as prescription medicine.

ii. Ask students if they use or have used herbs for health reasons. iii. Which herbal products did they use? Would they use the product again or

recommend it to others?

iv. If they use herbal products, are they concerned about the products’ safety? D. CAM Therapies in Perspective

i. Conventional medical practitioners are concerned when persons with serious conditions forgo or delay conventional treatments and rely instead on

questionable alternative therapies. These could be life–threatening decisions.

ii. Conventional medical practitioners are likely to be skeptical of CAM techniques if they have not been shown scientifically in large–scale clinical

studies to be safe or more helpful than placebos.

iii. Before using an alternative therapy, investigate the method and discuss options with your physician.

E. Choosing Conventional Medical Practitioners i. To help ensure high-quality conventional health care, consumers should

choose physicians who have certain personal and professional characteristics,

including appropriate training and excellent medical credentials.

ii. Patients need to acknowledge that they are largely responsible for their health status.

X. Across the Life Span: Health

A. Health care concerns are broader than those of interest to people just between the ages of 18 and 22.

B. Many college students are older, have children, and are faced with caring for aged parents.

C. Life span sections of the book focus on specific health concerns that affect people at certain stages of life.

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