CLASSMATE QUESTION #1
I can’t hear the word kidney, and not think of kidney stones; probably because I have been getting kidney stones for the last 15 years and they are absolutely miserable. Kidney stones can affect every part of the urinary system so it seems fitting to ask a question about them this week. Kidney stones can form anywhere from the kidneys down to the urethra. There are different types of kidney stone: calcium oxalate stone, calcium phosphate stones, struvite stones, uric acid stone, and cystine stones. Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type and they form because there is low amounts of citrate, high amounts of calcium and either oxalate or uric acid in the urine NYU Langone Health, 2022). Calcium phosphate stones can be caused by errors in how the urinary tract functions and they are also related to people who have high urine pH (Goldfarb, 2012). Struvite stones are more common in women because they usually form after certain types of UTI’s. Uric acid stones usually form in people who have high animal protein diets and don’t drink enough water, have a family history of kidney stones, a personal history of gout or someone who has had chemotherapy. Cystine stones are caused by a genetic disorder called cystinuria. This disorder causes the persons urine to have high amounts of cystine, which is an amino acid (NYU Langone, 2022). Usually, stones will form in concentrated urine which allows the components of different stone types, to bind together. Everyone is different and stones can form anywhere from weeks to years (Steinberg, 2016). Can you name and describe some effects that kidney stones can have on the urinary system? (278 WORDS)
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each is about the size of a fist, and are located just below the rib cage and one is on each side of the spine. Kidneys remove waste and extra body fluid from the body to maintain a healthy balance of water, salts, and minerals in the bloodstream. The kidneys also make hormones that control your blood pressure and make red blood cells. The kidneys are also responsible for removing drugs from the body and they produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones. The Kidneys are responsible for filtering and returning a large amount of fluid every day. The healthy human body excretes around two quarts in the form of urine every 24 hours. The antidiuretic hormone or ADH that is released from the pituitary gland into the bloodstream regulates the amount of water your kidneys reabsorb as they filter out waste from your blood. When ADH makes it to your kidneys, it signals them to conserve water and produce more concentrated urine. It does this by allowing water in the urine to be taken back into a specific area of the kidneys so then more water returns to the bloodstream and water loss is reduced.
How does ADH increase water retention in the Kidneys?