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Biomedical approaches to HIV prevention.

Ok here is the professors responds to my paper. Please respond back to both responds.. Please see the writing in RED that is her comment on my paper…

Example of how to post back: this is from a previous week. This is just an example!


Carr Mensa-Oduro 

RE: Discussion – Week 5

Top of Form

Cynthia, how would you improve each of the plans? 


Thanks for looking at my paper and get something to ask. With the three different plans, the best way to improve then is by alignment of all the three. Having the HMO PPO and POS in order saves the patient a lot of time and resources. Expansion of the cover to state-state link will also play a role.

Below:HLTH 2110-5

By Day 6 of Week 5, respond to at least one colleague by: · Ask a probing question. · Expand on the colleague’s posting with additional insight and resources. · Offer polite disagreement or critique, supported with evidence. In addition, you may also respond as follows:

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion or comment that guides or facilitates the discussion.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of your colleagues’ comments. You are not required to post these final insights.

Looking Ahead

Respond to Professor below: 


RE: Assignment – Week 5


Top of Form

Dear Cynthia Garcia–Thank you for the In the News report.  You reviewed HIV prevention and transmission in Cambodia among sex workers.  According to Mayer, Skeer, and Mimiaga (2010), there are several biomedical options for controlling the spread of HIV.  One method is male circumcision which is the “most prominent factor associated with decreased likelihood of becoming infected” (Mayer, Skeer, & Mimiaga, 2010, p. 196).  Another biomedical method may be antiretroviral therapy which could lower the chances of a person who is infected transferring HIV to a partner (Mayer, Skeer, & Mimiaga, 2010).  What do you consider the most promising prevention method using biomedical approaches?  I appreciate your comments.  Sincerely, Dr. Thompson


Mayer, K., Skeer, M., & Mimiaga, M. (2010). Biomedical approaches to HIV prevention. Alcohol Research & Health, 33(3), 196-202


Cynthia Garcia 

RE: Assignment – Week 5


Top of Form

In The News

 New York Times’ Donald McNeil writes on how HIV affects commercial sex workers and their children in Cambodia in the health Section under Global Health. According to a study termed as “small”, poor countries with high HIV rates have HIV not only affecting individual commercial sex workers but also their children. In Cambodia, HIV is among the leading killers of commercial sex workers second to abortion.  The study focused on sex workers of ages 18 and above with over seven experience. Notably, Cambodia has the highest rate of child sex tourism despite government and American Immigration Authorities effort to stop the vice. The root cause of the prevalence among commercial sex workers is the need to fend for their children with limited means which leaves them opting for prostitution. Once they have been infected, the women are not able to seek medical attention due to the fear of being arrested. Therefore, they are not able to do mother to child prevention or even prolong their lives leading to premature deaths.

A study conducted by Global Health Promise in Portland Ore found that female commercial sex workers are 12 times more likely to be infected with HIV compared to other women. Additionally, though the numbers may differ from place to place around the world, most of the women are mothers. The author acknowledges that there are efforts towards helping the group to prevent HIV infections. However, the efforts often expose them to other vices that become an undoing to the prevention efforts including abuses, violence and police seizure of condoms as an evidence for the behavior. 

Findings from the interviews conducted during the study found that among 32 deaths of female commercial workers, 40 percent of them died of abortion while HIV was named as the second leading killer. This is despite the country’s legalization of abortion. Similarly, 52 percent of the deaths of the children of the commercial sex workers died out of HIV as infants from the descriptions provided by the interviewees’. The director of the organization conducting the interview noted that the women had to be paid $5 dollars for an interview that lasted an hour. This is due to the poverty levels in the region which render the commercial sex workers helpless but to source for money through prostitution. He, however, declined to indicate his position on prostitution only focusing on the effects of the health issue to the infected and the affected people.  He added that the interviewed group works in bars, karaoke parlors and beer garden where they cited lack of other options to commercial sex working to earn the basic necessities or their children. He argues that the women are powerless in barraging for protected sex when they have not the very basic needs of their children such as food.

The articles focus on providing information based on both biomedical and prevention aspects of HIV from a global perspective in a poor country with a prevalence of HIV.  Through a research conducted on the affected group, the author undertakes to explain the causes of deaths among commercial workers providing the biomedical perspective which is lack of proper medical attention including taking drugs to prolong life and mother-child transmission prevention.

 Using the socio ecological model to explain the prevalence of HIV among the women is an explanation that the wok they do exposes them to the illness. Besides, the geographic location which has high levels of poverty and a low income which is caused by the structural dysfunctions in the country contribute to the infections (Minkler, 2010). Further, on the aspects of prevention, there are cultural barriers including the beliefs that induce fear of obtaining drugs to prolong life due to consequences including discrimination and arrest. The system does not put in place mechanisms of intervention for mother-child intervention despite advancement in healthcare that enables such unnecessary infections.


Donald McNeil (2017/02/20). H.I.V. Stalks Prostitutes and Their Children in Cambodia

New York Times.

Minkler, M. (2010). Linking science and policy through community-based participatory research to study and address health disparities. American journal of public health100(S1), S81-S87.

SECOND RESPONDS THAT IS DUE: the question is first and my paper is below that.

How to respond:

Direction on what to do:

Respond by Day 5 to at least two of your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of the comments your colleagues made.

Carr Mesa-Oduro: my professor that responded to my paper:

RE: Discussion – Week 5

Top of Form

What constitutes alignment though?

Bottom of Form

My paper below that they commented on:

Choosing a health insurance requires one to understand the requirement of the insurance provider. Although all insurance providers use a network of physicians, hospitals and other health care professionals to give you the highest quality care, there may be a difference in how the person insured interacts with the networks. Understanding the coverage terms will ensure that one stays within the terms of their contract and are eligible for the insurance at the end.

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) and Point of Service (POS) Plans all have their advantages and disadvantages, it is, therefore, more relevant to look at the best aspects of each of them. For HMO, the best part is that seeing having a primary physician that determines your sickness before referring you makes the entire process of getting treated easier and reduces the paperwork as well. In addition, the assigned physician takes the burden of looking for the best doctor to refer you in case they are unable to help. PPO, on the other hand, gives a person the flexibility they need. For instance, one does not need a physician to refer him or her to a doctor. This makes it convenience and easy to use that HMOs. POSs combine both the cost saving of the HMOs and PPOs to ensure that a person has the required flexibility and the reduced cost in one package.

All the three plans have their shortcoming and have many areas for improvement. For instance, for all the three, HMOs, PPOs and POS one should stay within the specified network and some like HMOs and POS insist that you stay within the same geographic area to be eligible. Removing the geographical restriction would make it easy for a patient to access better services in another area. However, financial constraints on the insurance providers, differences in legal requirements and bureaucracies from state to state may make this implementation difficult or even impossible. Allowing users of plans search as POS to use an external network would also improve it by allowing the users to seek better services elsewhere. However, since different networks may charge differently and may have different structures, this becomes a problem in implementing such a move. To make a wise decision when choosing n insurance cover, one must look for what category the fall in. Choosing the right category should depend on the convenience and the financial capabilities you should cater for the additional costs.


How are HMO, PPO and EPO plans different? | FAQs | Retrieved 9 May 2017, from

Point of Service (POS) Plans – Retrieved 9 May 2017, from

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